Friday, 30 September 2011

World’s Largest Hailstones

Large hail has accompanied the recent spate of tornado outbreaks across the U.S. including stones 4.5” in diameter in the Abilene, Texas area on April 24 and possible state records for largest hailstone on record in Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia during just this past month. This blog is a revue of the greatest hailstorms on record and the largest individual stones yet measured.

Hailstorms and Hailstone Size in the U.S.A.


There have been a handful of hailstorms that resulted in $1 billion or more in damages in the U.S. The costliest storm appears to be that of April 10, 2001 which cut a swath along the I-70 corridor from eastern Kansas to southwestern Illinois and pounded the St. Louis area. Property damage was in excess of $2.4 billion in 2010 dollars. The hailstorm that struck the Dallas/Ft. Worth, Texas metro area on May 5, 1995 also caused an estimated $2 billion in damage (adjusted to current dollars). The only other $1 billion dollar hailstorm on record was that which pummeled the Front Range of Colorado between Colorado Springs and Fort Collins on July 11, 1990 causing $1.6 billion damage in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars.


In spite of the enormous crop and property damage that hailstorms have caused only three people have ever been killed by falling hailstones in the United States: 1) a farmer caught in his field near Lubbock, Texas on May 13, 1930 2) a baby struck by large hail in Fort Collins, Colorado on July 31, 1979, and 3) a boater on Lake Worth, Texas on March 29, 2000.

Largest Stones

Largest Stones

Mr. and Ms. Clarence Costner proudly display baseball-sized hail that fell on their farm near Norbonne, Missouri date unknown. Photo from Weatherwise Magazine, August 1976.

The largest officially recognized hailstone on record to have been ‘captured’ in the U.S. was that which fell near Vivian, South Dakota last summer (2010) on July 23rd. It measured 8.0” in diameter, 18 ½” in circumference, and weighed in at 1.9375 pounds. Mr. Lee Scott, who collected, the monster stone originally planned to make daiquiris out of the hailstone but fortunately thought better and placed it in a freezer before turning it over to the National Weather Service for certification.

The largest official hailstone ever

The largest official hailstone ever collected in the U.S. An eight-inch monster that fell at Vivian, South Dakota on July 23, 2010.

Other instances of 8-inch hail have been reported in the past but not certified. The U.S. Weather Bureau’s Climatological Data by Sections Vol. 22, Part 2 April-June, 1935 mentions a hailstorm producing 8-inch diameter hailstones at Ponca City, Oklahoma on April 17, 1935 (see p. 18 in the Oklahoma section).

Below is a list by state of the largest hailstones ever measured. Only a few states maintain an ‘official’ list of such records which I have listed first and then followed up with a list of ‘unofficial’ sizes by state that I have gathered from various sources. If any readers could add to this list or correct it, I would be much appreciative!



Bart McCarthy inspects a 5.5”-diameter hailstone that fell near Wisconsin Rapids on June 7, 2007. It is the 2nd largest hailstone on record for the state of Wisconsin. Photo from NWS Green Bay, Wisconsin archives.

Hail Accumulations

Some hailstorms train over the same area (or stationary thunderstorms develop) producing massive hail accumulations. Hail accumulated to over 12” deep on level in El Dorado, Kansas on June 23, 1951 and a storm at Seldon, in northwest Kansas, left an 18”-deep accumulation of hail over a 54 square mile area on June 3, 1959.


An aerial view of a deep hail swath accumulation over Seldon, Kansas. The 18” of hail fell on the town on June 3, 1959. Photo from the Norton Telegram newspaper archives, Norton, Kansas.

Heavy rainfall following a hailstorm causes the hail accumulations to wash into ditches or creek beds and enormous piles of hail accumulate. This was the case during a storm south of Clayton, New Mexico on August 13, 2004 when a 12-inch hail accumulation was swept into a draw by 5” of rainfall. A culvert in the draw became clogged by the flow and the hail piled up to 15 feet deep behind it!

Hail cliffs 15 feet high

Hail cliffs 15 feet high line the bottom of a creek near Clayton, New Mexico following a deluge on August 13, 2004. Photo by Barbara Podzemny.

Some Notes on Large Hail Around the World


A map of world hail incidence. The most hail prone spot on the planet is Kericho, Kenya that averages about 50 days of hail each year and, in 1965, recorded 113 days of hail. Map by Mark Stroud and from my book ‘Extreme Weather: A Guide and Record Book’ p. 162.

Bangladesh and India

The deadliest hailstorms, and perhaps the largest hailstones, in the world occur on the Deccan Plateau of northern India and in Bangladesh. The heaviest authenticated hailstone ever measured was one of 2.25 pounds that fell in the Gopalganj district of Bangladesh on April 14, 1986. The stones size was not measured although anecdotal reports claimed the stones were the size of “pumpkins”. Ninety-two people perished as a result of the storm although how many of these can be attributed to the hail is uncertain. A hailstorm in the Moradabad and Beheri districts of India killed 246 people on April 30, 1888, the deadliest hailstorm on record in modern history.


In China 25 were killed by hail in Henan Province on July 19, 2002 and a possibly reliable report claims 200 were killed by hail in Hunan Province on June 19, 1932.


In Europe a hailstone weighing 2.14 pounds was measured following a storm in Strasbourg, France on August 11, 1958. The size was not noted. Europe’s most catastrophic hailstorm was that which struck Munich, Germany on July 12, 1984. Some 70,000 homes (and 190 aircraft!) were damaged and 400 people injured by hail the size of baseballs. Property damage was estimated at over US$2 billion.


Perhaps the single costliest hailstorm in world history was that which struck the Sydney, Australia area on April 14, 1999. Hailstones up to 3½” in diameter fell for almost 60 minutes damaging 20,000 structures and 40,000 vehicles. The total damage came to US$3 billion in inflation-adjusted dollars and remains Australia’s costliest natural disaster.


A hailstorm bears down on Sydney, date unknown. Photo by Carl Ord.


Canada’s largest hailstone of record was that collected at Cedoux, Saskatchewan on August 27, 1973. It measured 114 mm in diameter (4.5”) and weighed 290 grams (10.2 ounces). Probably the costliest hailstorm was that which affected 130 sq. kilometers in the Calgary, Alberta area on September 7, 1991. It caused $400 million in Canadian dollars damage.

Unsubstantiated Reports

There are many apocryphal or unsubstantiated stories of giant hailstones from many corners of the world including a stone weighing 4.18 pounds in Kazakhstan in 1959; an 11-pound stone in Guangxi Province, China in 1986; and, best of all, a hailstone the size of an “elephant” in Seringapatam, India sometime in the late 18th century! Many of these events are more likely not hailstones but hydrometeors, large chunks of ice that fall from the sky for some unknown reason or source.

REFERENCES: The only book I am aware that is solely devoted to hail is Snowden D. Flora’s classic Hailstorms of the United States published by the Univ. of Oklahoma Press back in 1956. It is still a great reference.

The best hail-related web site is


Saturday, 24 September 2011

Dogs Enjoy the Great Outdoors

Dog days of summer

Dog days of summer

Dogs sometimes express the exuberance of the moment better than humans. That's certainly true of the dogs featured in the Hounds Across America photo contest, a light-hearted celebration of summer that highlights the role dogs play in the lives of people across America. After all that's the year-round mission of Dog Bless You, the organization behind the contest.

Dog Bless You was founded by filmmaker Charles Annenberg Weingarten to spread awareness about the healing role dogs can play in our lives. Weingarten, a trustee of the Annenberg Foundation, is also the founder of, the multimedia arm of the Annenberg Foundation that is described as "a philanthropic community whose mission is to champion the selfless acts of others, to create a portal into the soul of humanity and to inspire lifelong learning."



Shari Morehead and her husband have five wooded acres in Nebraska. They share the land with their eight labs, and the few pictured here are Mongo Pete, Little Pete, Auggie, Odie and Sugar Bear. Shari calls them her "Lab Team." On this sunny summer day, the labs found a large stick in the Nemeha River and competed to bring it over to Shari and her husband. Shari says, "When they all find one stick, they all want that stick."

This photo was one of the winners of the first week's theme. Check back at the group's Facebook page to learn the weekly themes for upcoming contests, which will continue through Sept. 7.

Puppy pool

Puppy pool

Dog Bless You fan Carol Gattis trains a brood of lab puppies in her backyard pool. Carol says, "At this age, they’re unable to jump out of the pool on their own." But it sure makes for a phenomenal picture!

Surf Dog Ricochet

Surf Dog Ricochet

Surf Dog Ricochet is an internationally renowned, award-winning surf dog that surfs tandem with special needs kids and people with disabilities. Here she is pictured surfing solo, enjoying a day at the beach.

Jumping high

Jumping high dog

Emily Hurt headed to Surfside Beach in Texas with her friends for a long weekend so that their dogs could enjoy lots of beach time. The dogs loved it, especially Emily's high-flying pooch, Felicity. Apparently Felicity is known for her "big air" and is often referred to as MJ — as in Michael Jordan.

Without a doggy paddle

Without a doggy paddle

Phil Carlson's four dogs were enjoying some sun and relaxation in the backyard pool in Denver, Colo. (But then the dogs realized they had no way out of the pool.)


Monday, 19 September 2011

Big Five Mass Extinction Events

Extinction of the dinosaurs, artworkAlthough the Cretaceous-Tertiary (or K-T) extinction event is the most well-known because it wiped out the dinosaurs, a series of other mass extinction events has occurred throughout the history of the Earth, some even more devastating than K-T. Mass extinctions are periods in Earth's history when abnormally large numbers of species die out simultaneously or within a limited time frame. The most severe occurred at the end of the Permian period when 96% of all species perished. This along with K-T are two of the Big Five mass extinctions, each of which wiped out at least half of all species. Many smaller scale mass extinctions have occurred, indeed the disappearance of many animals and plants at the hands of man in prehistoric, historic and modern times will eventually show up in the fossil record as mass extinctions. Discover more about Earth's major extinction events below.

Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction


The third largest extinction in Earth's history, the Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction had two peak dying times separated by hundreds of thousands of years. During the Ordovician, most life was in the sea, so it was sea creatures such as trilobites, brachiopods and graptolites that were drastically reduced in number. In all, some 85% of sea life was wiped out. An ice age has been blamed for the extinctions - a huge ice sheet in the southern hemisphere caused climate change and a fall in sea level, and messed with the chemistry of the oceans.

Late Devonian mass extinction

Late Devonian landscape, artwork

Three quarters of all species on Earth died out in the Late Devonian mass extinction, though it may have been a series of extinctions over several million years, rather than a single event. Life in the shallow seas were the worst affected, and reefs took a hammering, not returning to their former glory until new types of coral evolved over 100 million years later. In fact, much of the sea bed became devoid of oxygen, rendering it effectively out of bounds for anything except bacteria. Changes in sea level, asteroid impacts, climate change and new kinds of plants messing with the soil have all been blamed for these extinctions.

Permian mass extinction

Early Earth, computer artwork

The Permian mass extinction has been nicknamed The Great Dying, since a staggering 96% of species died out. All life on Earth today is descended from the 4% of species that survived. The event turns out to have been complex, as there were at least two separate phases of extinction spread over millions of years. Marine creatures were particularly badly affected and insects suffered the only mass extinction of their history. Many causes have been proposed for the event: asteroid impact, flood basalt eruptions, catastrophic methane release, a drop in oxygen levels, sea level fluctuations or some combination of these.

Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction

Artist's impression of Triassic period landscape.

During the final 18 million years of the Triassic period, there were two or three phases of extinction whose combined effects created the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event. Climate change, flood basalt eruptions and an asteroid impact have all been blamed for this loss of life. Many types of animal died out, including lots of marine reptiles, some large amphibians, many reef-building creatures and large numbers of cephalopod molluscs. Roughly half of all the species alive at the time became extinct. Strangely, plants were not so badly affected.

Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction

Extinction of the dinosaurs, artwork

The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction - also known as the K/T extinction - is famed for the death of the dinosaurs. However, many other organisms perished at the end of the Cretaceous including the ammonites, many flowering plants and the last of the pterosaurs. Some groups had been in decline for several million years before the final event that destroyed them all. It's suggested that the decline was due to flood basalt eruptions affecting the world's climate, combined with drastic falls in sea level. Then a huge asteroid or comet struck the seabed near the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and was the straw that broke the camel's back.


Friday, 16 September 2011

9 Top Horse Races Around the World

True equestrian lovers know the excitement of the adrenaline rush that comes when a major race begins and the horses start beating their way around the tracks. The horses, and their riders, are respected by their audiences as they barrel towards their goals with power and dignity. Horse races are held all around the world, but only a few are held in high esteem. Look for one of these events the next time you consider heading out to a race.

The Melbourne Cup

The Melbourne CupPhoto credit

The most venerable thoroughbred race Down Under was inaugurated in 1861 and now hands out prize money in excess of AUD$6 million. The premier event on the Melbourne calendar is held at Flemington Racecourse, which dates back to 1840. “The Race That Stops A Nation” takes place on the first Tuesday in November.

The Kentucky Derby

The Kentucky Derby

The Kentucky Derby is quite possibly one of the most well known horse racing events, if only because it is such a widely recognized household name. The race is always held at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky and is the first of three races in the Triple Crown series.

The Kentucky Hat

This is more than just a race. The residents of Louisville celebrate the two-minute race for an entire week with parties, parades, fireworks, and more. Don’t just visit for the race – visit for the experience!

The Royal Ascot

The Royal Ascot

The Royal Ascot takes place in Ascot, England and is more than just a race. It’s an opportunity for the wealthy to showcase their most prized possessions, in both their thoroughbred horses and their taste in fashion and style. There is a strict and formal dress code during this event, including top hats, tails, and fine dresses. The event consists of 24 major races over the course of a four day period. The Royal Ascot is always attended by the Queen, who arrives at the same time each day – almost as entertaining to see as the race itself.

The Grand National

The Grand National

Taking place in Aintree, England, the Grand National is an incredibly unique event. This event isn’t a simple race, as horses are required to jump 30 fences before finishing off the 2 mile course with a straight run. The history of the race is rich with success stories and triumphs as well as tales of woe as horses find themselves stalled by difficult jumps. Both amateur and professional trainers and jockeys are encouraged to participate at the Grand National.

The Preakness

The Preakness

The Preakness takes place at the Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland each year. The race is the second part of the Triple Crown Series and is highly anticipated as viewers watch the winner of the Kentucky Derby to see if he will make it one step closer to sweeping all three races – a rare occurrence. The Preakness isn’t just about the race, however. Pre-race activities include the Miss Preakness Contest and the Preakness Portrait Art Contest. Visitors to the race grounds love to picnic and party – both before and after the race itself!

Breeders Cup

Breeders Cup

The Breeders Cup doesn’t call any one track home, visiting a different racetrack in the northeast United States each year. This year officials added three new races to the cup, for a total of 14 races and a total of $25.5 million in purses. The 2008 Breeders Cup will be held at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California. Officials also recently announced that the 2009 Breeders Cup will be held in Arcadia as well – making this the first time in history that the race is held in the same place for two years in a row. The race itself marks the end of the horse-racing season each year.

Belmont Stakes

Belmont Stakes

The Belmont Stakes are held at Belmont Park in Elmont, NY each year. The Belmont Stakes Race is the last race in the triple-crown series. The Belmont Stakes has run for 140 years. The race is highly anticipated each year and has been the focus of careful attention. Over the past few decades, 15 horses have attempted to win the Belmont Stakes after winning both the Preakness and the Derby. In 140 years, only 11 horses have actually won the coveted Triple Crown! As a side note, the Belmont Park does not raise its admission prices for the Belmont Stakes, making this an event that anyone can attend.

Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe


The Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe is held in Paris, France and is considered one of the most important horse races in Europe each year. The race was named in honor of French Soldiers who fought during World War I and draws competitors from all over, including Germany, Ireland, and England. The course is about one and a half miles long and the winner receives an astounding $10,500,000 purse! Make reservations for Paris hotel accommodations that won’t break the bank.

Dubai World Cup

Dubai World Cup

A newer race, the Dubai World Cup is held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates each year. The public eye has been on this race since it began in 1996. The purse has increased significantly over the past few years, making it one of the most coveted wins each year. At the Dubai World Cup, fashion is almost as important as the race itself – you’ll see women parading in some of the loveliest (and strangest) hats and garments you’ve ever seen. Thoroughbred horses originated from the United Arab Emirates and surrounding areas and were later transported throughout the world, making this the ultimate destination for a race.

Everyone will enjoy a day at the races, even those with only a passing interest in the horses themselves. The event is sure to be full of entertainment, excitement, and intrigue!

Photo Credits: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, source

Wednesday, 14 September 2011

Fascinating Half Albino Animals

The rarest albino animal half of the mystery of many scientists around the world. This is a list of those beautiful half albino half of normal animals.

Half albino peacock

half albino peacock

This is half albino half normal peacock. Perhaps, it’s a crossbreed between normal specie and an albino one albino peacock. Actually, in nature such accurate 50/50 beings are rare.

Exempli gratia, not so long ago an apple was found. What makes it stand out from the billions of other apples being grown every year on Earth is its surprisingly accurate 50/50 split of colors.

Half albono lopster

half albino Lobster

The lobster was caught off Nova Scotia in 2002. Not only is it precisely half albino, it is also a hermaphrodite - male on one side and female on the other.

Lobsters develop independently on each side of the body, which accounts for the two different claws, and also for bizarre patterns like this.

Half albino python

Half albino python

Half albino ball python.

Half albino cardina

Half-Albino Cardina

A male Northern Cardinal, half white and half normal coloration. A very unusual bird.

Half albino turtle

Half albino turtle

Half albino turtle,a very rare species ...1 in million if i m not wrong!

Half albino dog

half albino dog

And the rare of the rarest — half albino half normal dog. link

Half albino deer

Half albino deer

This deer was raised from a fawn on a deer farm in Upstate New York. Isn't he cute? He has one blue eye and one black eye. link

Half albino gecko

Very rare half albino gecko. link

Half albino cobra

Half albino cobra

This rare half albino cobra may look beautiful, but it is just as de*dly as the rest of its species. link

Monday, 12 September 2011

12 Most Unique and Dangeorus Mushroom

Some people just know that mushroom is only has an umbrella shape. Today we are going to show top 12 different mushroom which is weird but unique. Let’s check it out!

12. Devil’s Cigar

Devils Cigar

A star-shaped mushroom, called the Devil’s Cigar (Chorioactis geaster) is one of the worlds rarest fungi. This fungi had been detected only in central Texas, two remote locations in Japan, and most recently in the mountains of Nara.

The Devil’s Cigar is a dark brown cigar-shaped capsule that transforms into a tan-coloured star when it splits open to release its spores. It is also one of only a few known fungi that produce a distinct whistle sound when releasing it’s spores.

In October 2006 Masakuni Kimura, curator of a natural history museum in the town of Kawakami, first encountered twelve Devil’s Cigars growing from a d*ad oak tree near a mountain stream at an elevation of 470 meters. Nearly a year later he discovered four more mushrooms when he and a colleague returned to the site. At all the sites where the Devil’s Cigar was founded, they were observed growing on dead oak trees near a stream. The fungus is included on the red list of threatened species published by Japan’s Environment Ministry.

11  Octopus stinkhorn

Octopus stinkhorn

This is a very interesting fungi, called the Octopus stinkhorn (Clathrus columnatus). They all have a foul-smelling slime covering part of the fruiting body. With the odor of fresh dog feces, the stinkhorn attracts green bottle flies to dispers. The octopus stinkhorn with its branched fingers belongs to the Clathraceae family. The dark colored slime clings to the inside of the structure and smells like something d*ed.

They are indigenous to Australia and Tasmania and an introduced species in Europe and North America. The young fungus erupts from a suberumpent egg by forming into four to seven elongated slender arms initially erect and attached at the top. The arms then unfold to reveal a pinkish-red interiour covered with a dark-olive spore-containing gleba.

10 Sea Anemone fungus

Sea Anemone fungus

Aseroë rubra, commonly known as the Anemone Stinkhorn or Sea Anemone fungus, is a widespread Australian fungus. Just like the octopus stink horn it is recognizable for its foul odour of carrion and its unique anemone shape. Found in gardens on mulch and in grassy areas, it resembles a red star-shaped structure covered in brownish slime on a white stalk. It attracts flies, which spread its spores.

9  Bird’s Nest fungi

Birds Nest fungi

Bird’s Nest fungi belong to the family Nidulariaceae with the most common genera in New Zealand are Nidula, Cyathus, and Crucibulum. As bird’s nest fungi are decomposers of organic material, they are found most often in New Zealand on decaying wood, small twigs, tree fern debris and sometimes on animal dung. In urban environments they often be found in sawdust, woodchip, or well enriched soil, and landscaping timber.

As their common name suggests they look like small bird’s nests complete with eggs. The nest is a splash cup which is light to dark brown or white on the outside and white, grey or brown on the inside, this depending on species. With smooth flaring sides between 4 to 10 mm in diameter and 6 to 20 mm in height, again depending on species Immature Bird Nest have a cap over the top of the splash cup to protect the eggs, which brakes away at maturity.

8  Fungi with Flare

Fungi with Flare

With the arrival of Japan’s rainy season, a mysterious type of green, glow-in-the-dark mushroom begins to sprout in Wakayama prefecture. The Mycena lux-coeli mushrooms, known locally as shii no tomobishi-dake (literally, “chinquapin glow mushrooms”), sprout from fallen chinquapin trees. As they grow, a chemical reaction involving luciferin (a light-emitting pigment contained within the mushrooms) occurs, causing them to glow a ghostly green.

The luminescent mushrooms were long believed to be indigenous solely to Tokyo’s Hachijojima Island after they were discovered there in the early 1950s. In 1995, however, mycologists found the fungus growing wild in coastal areas of the southern Kii peninsula, as well as in Kyushu and other areas.

7  Bleeding Tooth fungus

Bleeding Tooth fungus

Hydnellum peckii is a common, inedible fungus, also known as bleeding tooth fungus, often found beneath conifers. It possesses a funnel-shaped cap, and is best known for “bleeding” a red liquid. This liquid contains a mushroom pigment called atromentin, which has anticoagulant properties similar to heparin. Its normal cap diameter is between 5 and 15 cm.

6  Earthstar


The Geastrum saccatum or Earthstar is a small but beautiful mushroom that features a round spore case sitting atop a star with 4-9 arms. These odd mushrooms resemble cookies, laying scattered on the dark forest floor. Like the puffball, when ripe, the center sac gives off a puff of spores when poked. They grow gregariously under hardwoods or conifers; often appearing around stumps; spring through fall. These are widespread throughout North America.

5  Craterellus Cornucopioides (Black Trumpet)

Craterellus Cornucopioides (Black Trumpet) 01
Craterellus cornucopioides is an edible mushroom, also known as trumpet of death, black chanterelle, black trumpet, or horn of plenty. The Cornucopia, in Greek mythology, referred to the magnificent horn of the goat (or goat of the nymph) Amalthea, that filled itself with whatever meat or drink its owner requested. It has become the symbol of plenty.  The mushroom is dark, almost black, and looks rather unattractive, but has a very good flavour. It is hard to find because of its dark color, which easily blends in with the leaf litter on the forest floor. Hunters of this mushroom say it is like looking for black holes in the ground.

4  The Cedar-apple Rust fungus

The Cedar-apple Rust fungus

The cedar-apple rust fungus (G. juniperi-virginianae) forms light brown to reddish or chocolate brown galls in the leaf axils of infected Juniperus species. These galls are not very noticeable until wet weather occurs in the spring, when they produce orange gelatinous “horns”, turning the galls into slimy, spiky balls. Spores produced in the slime travel by wind to infect the apple or hawthorn host.

The fungus infects the apple or hawthorn plant in the spring, producing bright orange spots on the tops of leaves, hence the name “rust”. The spots enlarge, and by the end of the summer the underside of each spot contains long, spiny eruptions from which spores are produced.

Spores from these eruptions do not re-infect the apple or hawthorn, but rather infect the cedar host, completing the life cycle.

3  False Morel

False Morel

This weird-looking but beautifully colored species of mushroom resembles a human brain. False Morels as it is popularly known, is widely distributed across Europe and North America. It normally grows in sandy soils under coniferous trees, in spring and early summer. Although potentially fatal if eaten raw, it is a popular delicacy in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and the upper Great lakes region of North America.

2. Galerina-marginata


This gorgeous saprobic mushroom is actually a poisonous mushroom that contains the toxin, α-amanitin. It damages the liver cells most, along with the kidneys and the central nervous system. So, do not mess around with this truly toxic mushroom.

1. Destroying Angel

Destroying Angel

A white-gilled and almost oval mushroom, the destroying angel is the most common toxic mushroom around the world. It contains amatoxins, responsible for fatal mushroom poisoning, as de*th caps do. The damage starts with the destruction of the liver and kidney tissue within a couple of hours after consumption, leading to de*th.

Mushrooming is considered a healthy hobby as one gets out into nature. Eating mushrooms adds flavor and richness to our food. But to enjoy the meal, you must remember to “never eat a mushroom unless you are 100% certain of the identification."

source: 1, 2


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